A new paper by Dr N C Saxena on how to improve production, access, and incomes from MFPs for forest dwellers. Whereas 70 per cent of India’s population lives in rural areas, for tribals this is as high as 90 percent. It is well established that most tribals live in forested regions, and their economy is heavily based on gathering from forests. In all about 100 million people living in and around forests derive at least part of their livelihood from collection and marketing of non-timber forest products. These NTFPs provide subsistence and farm inputs, such as fuel, food, medicines, fruits, manure, and fodder. The collection of NTFPs is a source of cash income, especially during the slack seasons. The issue of rights and access to NTFPs and incomes from NTFPs is of great importance to the sustenance and livelihoods for forest dwellers.